Cuban Casa

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Throughout my travels I stayed in Casa Particulars, which are similar to B&B’s in the US. Staying in private homes gave me a glimpse into lives of Cuban families that could be considered middle class. Villa: Tres Hermanas is the house of 3 sisters near Las Terrazas.

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Anabel & Mario & multiple generations of  family live under 1 roof. He built the home on land owned by his father & not seized after the revolution. He added an apartment on the roof for one daughter. When the room I stayed in wasn’t rented various family members sleep there. His parents cook many of the meals, do laundry & maintaining the chicken & pigs. While sharing small living spaces has challenges it reinforces a common history, provides a support group & creates esprit de corps within families.

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In urban areas those that don’t own a home live in government owned apartments void of character. Many live on meager wages & pensions that can pay the state controlled rent & expenses. Due to a shortage of public housing there are waiting lists to get into these buildings. Although they provide people basic shelter at an affordable price, these buildings exemplify a basic flaw of Communism.

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Just outside the center of Vinales is a street lined with tropical colored Casa Particulars which are licensed by the state. It leads to the Valley of Silence & has quite a bit of local & tourist traffic. The region has many natural attractions making it a popular destination for visitors to Cuba. This influx of travelers allows homeowners in this community to participate in the growing opportunities for small businesses.

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The Caribbean weather has a significant influence on the design of courtyards & terraces as a part of the living space in old & new buildings. Windows & doors are large to allow daylight in. Timber is scarce so concrete is the common building material. Beautiful mosaics are abundant. The architectural style & detail of Spanish plantation homes, which are now mostly museums, are spectacular. However, understanding the inequities of the wealthy owners compared to the slaves/workers dampened my appreciation.

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An initial reaction to some living conditions might resonate poverty. However, the needs of people are simple & often the places they live in reflect that. The humble furnishings are a source of pride for this man whose son & grandson are putting a roof on a home he & his wife own. The most common deficiency I saw in these neighborhoods was inadequate infrastructure. The living conditions are far below the standards we expect. However, Cubans have pride in ownership of their Spartan dwellings.

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The overall consumption of electricity for average Cubans is low. Per capita they use 5% compared to the US. A few homes I stayed in had AC for guests but beyond that & refrigerators they had few electrical appliances. On many levels the services supplied by the government is lacking. But as with many problems, the people innovate a way to get it done. I am not an electrical engineer however; I do believe the tropical sun & low demand could be an opportunity for powering the entire nation with solar power.

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This is the kitchen of my driver Ricardo where he lives with his parents, wife & son. His father is a doctor & his mother is a nurse at the local hospital. His father recently returned after working 2 years in a remote village in Brazil. Volunteering for that position the Cuban government raised his salary. Ricardo’s routine job is a programmer for the government. He works on the side as a driver earning .5 CUC per km. Their home is not luxurious but as a family they earn money outside the structured regulations to raise their standard of living. I asked why refrigerators were a few inches above the floor. Since most Cubans are meticulous about cleaning. The platform keeps the refrigerator dry during the daily moping of the floor.

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In the Valley of Sugar Mills outside of of Trinidad a farmer has a small cozy 4 room home tucked into a shaded grove of trees. It sits a few hundred yards from the former plantation home of wealthy landowners from the 1800’s that is now a museum. The inhumane artifacts of slavery the farmer has uncovered while plowing the fields are displayed on the side of his home including leg irons, metal collars & handcuffs.

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In the urban center of Camagüey, & other cities, the centuries old narrow cobblestone streets have no room for parking. The entry room of many homes also serves as a garage for two wheeled vehicles.

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The openness & light throughout the homes enhanced soft tropical colors. I discovered wooden accents like the corner wall mounts. Those will be added to my wood shop projects.

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All the places I stayed were comfortable, clean & used attractive outdoor areas & rooftops as part of the living space. The aesthetics varied in each city & my experience was unique to each owner’s casa. The breakfasts were enough to get me to dinner although I think the start of my day was a bit early for most hosts. As I had hoped, Casa Particulars provided a memorable glimpse into a segment of Cuban society.

The content of these postings are based upon my observations, conversations with my guide, interviews with people interpreted by my guide & interactions I had with people I met. Any mistakes are entirely mine with no intention to mislead.

More Ballet

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I recently took a Master Photography class with Martha Rial at Chautauqua Institution. The class was an inspiring motivation which concentrated on a photojournalism approach to telling a story. I did my assignment with the resident Chautauqua Summer Ballet, which is the Charlotte Ballet. Martha reviewed some of my images & suggested I shoot wider to tell more of the story & zoom with my feet. My interpretation was to work with 85,40 & 26 prime lenses. I knew the background & lighting were going to be far from pristine but I accepted that as part of photojournalism guidelines.

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In Cuba I had a few hours to shoot ballet.  At The Chautauqua School of Dance I had 3 days of opportunities & everybody spoke English. However, listening to dancers learning a new work in class, their jargon was as foreign as Spanish. They rehearsed with Chautauqua Orchestra & performed a tribute to the retiring artistic director on the newly rebuilt stage/amphitheater. I had GREAT collaboration with the staff & the dancers. The “story” for my assignment evolved into an understated look at change & how the show goes on.

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I had some satisfaction/success in Cuba with low shots & I explored that perspective even further by being closer & wider. Including the background dancers mirroring the primary subject adds another layer to the image I find absorbing. Instead of fighting a losing battle with lights I tried to be “in the moment” as Martha suggested & ignored the florescent lights. For me, the best part of the 5 day class was the interactive critique.

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I was impressed with Mark Diamonds style of choreographing the routines. He spoke in a soft voice forcing quiet with students & capturing their attention. The pace the dancers were taught & coached was faster than I expected. During the condensed summer season the turn-around between performances is sometimes less than a week. Collaboration within the company was reflective of their professionalism & attempts of perfection.

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For dancers it is all about the form & the purity of the line. As a photographer I want to capture those elements but I also want lighting & background to enhance them. Since I had no control of either of those elements I needed to react to the activity as it was happening. In this shot I captured the dancer with an interesting positioning of students in the background. At least the fluorescent lamps were close in color & relatively even.

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Sarah Hayes Harkins is a principle dancer in the Charlotte Ballet. She has been with the company for over 9 years.  When I saw her massaging her quads with a roller I immediately recognized the similarities to the way other athletes train & condition their muscles. Dancers have a remarkable harmony between the power & tone in their legs, shoulders back, arms & even their neck. If you think ballerinas are delicate think again. They are superbly conditioned athletes.

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I’m not sure if he would agree but I think I captured the moment of his leap. I even had some better lighting as they rehearsed on the stage. For my class we were to do minimal cropping & for most of the images in my presentation I did as I was told. However, for my blog & other presentations I find cropping to emphasize the subject is a very powerful technique. During class we discussed where the line is photojournalism shouldn’t cross with respect to editing. I got a better perspective of when I would enhance an image with Photoshop. I now need to work on better use of PS tools.

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Although wider shots fit the adage of showing the whole dancer, every now & then I’d see a frame that wasn’t head to toe.  I never thought just one extended arm in the frame would be a good shot until I saw this. Sarah Lapointe has her focus on the mirror as she examines her form. Capturing an expression in relationship to a pose can be dramatic. Her concentration & expression are clues to her personality. For my blog posting of this shot I stepped over the line of photojournalism by eliminating background distractions and inserting a gradient. I recognize my PS skills need improvement. However, this is closer to the style of image that motives me to shoot dancers.

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I spent time further exploring the added dimension of the mirror. This shot was a major improvement from the mirror shot in my last blog post from Cuba. One of the great things about photographing the dancers is that they almost never made eye contact with me. I was as close to being a fly on the wall as I have ever experienced.

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The low angle adds emphasis to the height of the dancers. The symmetry of their form & line fills the frame. Given the results of shooting low & wide, if I get the opportunity to shoot more dance I will search for methods to be low on the ground that don’t aggravate my old knees.

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I anticipated this classic pose during afternoon rehearsal. As they were rehearsing with a live orchestra I found myself guided by the music as to when to expect moments like this. I have become more comfortable with square framing in post-production. When I snapped the shutter I knew I would crop it into a square. I also found off angle positions to be more interesting than straight on from the center of the stage.

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This is definitely not part of the dancers routine. However, this shot makes the dancers more human & adds depth to the story. Even as they leave the stage after a grueling rehearsal they are still in step. I was satisfied with the presentation I did for my class. I felt improvement in my ability to capture “the moment” of the dancers. I would highly recommend a workshop to photogs that want to expand their skills. This class was not as intensive as most & it was also far less expensive.

Camaguey Cuba Ballet

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The most exciting photographic opportunity I had in Cuba was at a rehearsal for the Camagüey Ballet. I’ve always wanted the opportunity to capture dance, which like music, is a linear art form. Unlike musical performances, dancers provide numerous moments for powerful still images. Considering it was my first attempt I did OK. My instincts of where to be & when to snap were solid. The challenges of background & lighting were a distraction. A photo my daughter took inspired this shot.
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As I have mentioned before, odd numbers for me are more visually interesting. I find that 3 or 5 primary subjects can create unbalanced symmetry I find intriguing. Maybe it has something to do with the rules of thirds. I found this tighter shot, which cropped the full form of the dancers, engaged my eye more with the individuals. I enjoy the personal outfits of rehearsal instead of more formal costumes during performance.
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As I was transitioning from the horizontal of video into stills I discussed the challenges I had with vertical framing. A single ballerina in a spinning pointe erased whatever traces I  have of reluctance to turn the camera 90 degrees. I also explored personal post-production boundaries on this image. I justify the enhancement with the fact that the subject is “art”.
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A square cropping also pushes my comfort zone. Shortly after I started working on this image in PS I was drawn to this perspective. In some respects, because it lacks the entire pose of the dancer, this shot is a failure. However the expression on her face justifies to me showing only 3 of her 4 appendages. This led me to explore square cropping with other images.
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When photographing in a room with mirrors it can be either a nightmare or an entry to another dimension. Fortunately the mirror was on the south side of the room where I kept my back most of the time. I would however like to explore coordinating the perspective of this shot. Standing there trying to make something out of this angle I remembered a workshop where I learned where you stand with a camera is a lot like shooting pool. A few degrees difference can make a big change.

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Although shot has an even number of subjects I like this image a lot. The missing form of the ballerina in the foreground is partially revealed in the background dancer. This combines the power of a close-up with a hint of the pose. I also like the green leaf earrings, which are a personal touch you could easily miss in a wider shot. along with the informal wisp of her hair. If only the bar in the background had not been there. I was thrilled & thankful to be a guest at this rehearsal. However, the photographer in me wanted control.

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OK, I’m back to odd numbers. In an effort to eliminate the bar that encircled the room I tried getting a lower angle. However my old knees had an opinion as to how much I should do this. Again, I justify the failure of not having the complete form with the more dramatic facial features. The receding focus & the position of the dancers arms in conjunction with the direction of the their gaze create both tension & harmony.

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This shot demonstrates all of the visual distractions I was trying to overcome. If I had to choose only one distraction I could eliminate I would have the bar removed. In my minds eye the strong horizontal lines is a visual speed bump. Ignoring the distractions and the noise from a high ISO I love the form captured in this moment as well as the dancers concentration. In hindsight, I could have lowered the shutter to 350 speed & reduced the ISO.

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As somewhat of a bookend to the beginning image of feet in the 3rd position I choose this CU of pointe to end my images from the rehearsal studio. A ballerina in pointe is an iconic image of the art. In my minds eye the subtle strength & precise form of the dancer are captured in this detail.

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I must thank Esmeralda Pimental Rodriguez a representative for Paridiso Tourismo Cultural for the connection and insight into Cuban Art. She helped coordinate my trip to the ballet rehearsal at Casa Quinta. If I ever return to Cuba I will look for her assistance in coordinating  my visit around a performance of the Camaguey Ballet.

The content of these postings are based upon my observations, conversations with my guide, interviews with people interpreted by my guide & interactions I had with people I met. Any mistakes are entirely mine with no intention to mislead.

Artists of Cuba & their ART Part 2

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Sorting my images I recognized shots of artwork connected to some of my strongest memories of my trip To Cuba, Even if these photographs are what I consider substandard, especially compared to various people shots, I wanted to do another posting of Cuban art to give some insight into the character of the artists & culture.

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The pallet of colors Cuban artists use is weighted in the tropics. The subjects in much of their work is diverse interpretations of life on the island. In many variations, art is a voice that speaks to the emotion of people, places & times.

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I don’t know if the faces are specific individuals or if they are symbolic representations. When I think of Dark Imagery it usually lacks detail. In this work the detail is intricate to whatever the artist was trying to say.

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I’ve thought tile/mosaic work is between flat art & sculpture. I might even call it 2.5D. In public & privates spaces I found custom works enhancing the environment.

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In Cuban Art Part 1 I showed you Abel Garcia Leon in the business side of his home. With his dog keeping him company he is working on a fresh canvas in his studio beside his barbershop. The kitchen, bedroom & toilet are in the back.

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The work of his I saw hanging in his barbershop/studio was an interesting approach to pointillism. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Seurat

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The Garden of Eden symbolism would be an interesting discussion I would love to have with the artist that created this painting. Symbolic biblical representation like this in a Communist country is an example of how art can transcend oppression.

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An artist in the tropics made me feel the cold winds of the sea with color & brush strokes. That is an example of how art can have an impact on senses beyond your eyes.

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The umbrella topic of this blog is motivation. The inspiration & evolution of the artist that made this piece would be a very interesting discussion.

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I believe it is very challenging to “fill the frame” in any visual medium. The easel is the perfect method to display this work. A frame would destroy the boundaries.

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Often as I wander thru galleries, shops & museums, I felt an overwhelming diversity of styles. The montage/collage displays demonstrated a co-op of the talent on the island as the images fought for my attention.

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As a photograph this is a complete failure with the exception of the subject. The trilogy of the work with the background drew me to try & capture something that I just couldn’t get. However, the diversity of the theme of vases really caught my eye.

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Most of the Casa Particulares I stayed in had artwork that complemented the homes. This outdoor courtyard in Camaguey had an elaborate wall mural made with 8X8 tiles fitted together like a jigsaw puzzle. The organic accents & the decorative ironwork were integrated in an interesting layout.

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I end this blog with another mediocre photograph. I did not take the time to wait for better human interaction with public art. I was on my way to Ballet Rehearsal which is the next posting in a few weeks.

The content of these postings are based upon my observations, conversations with my guide, interviews with people interpreted by my guide & interactions I had with people I met. Any mistakes are entirely mine with no intention to mislead.

Artists of Cuba & their ART Part 1

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My blog returns to Cuba with focus on art & the artists that produce it. The on-the ground experience of seeing the work of artisans was motivation to connect my camera to my mind. If it catches my eye, attention or ears I explore a little deeper. If it makes me smile or triggers a memory, I want to share it. I hope you enjoy where my eyes take you. My credibility as a critic is thin so explore the links to add you own exposure.

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Music wasn’t a motivator but… First was Herb Albert/The Lonely Bull. Then Santana’s Soul Sacrifice followed by Oye Coma Va by Tito Puente  & Latin tempos became a part of my life. Currently Manhattan Transfer/Soul Food To Go is my favorite driving song. Enjoyment of Latin tempos is a constant in my life. However, music is linear for the ear. I didn’t put effort into shots of musicians. To hear Afro Cuban Music, watch 3 Rivers to Cuba. Done by Chris Mason, her it explores multiple layers of Cuban musical culture.

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The architectural & artisan work of the Spanish Colonial Empire has influence on artists today. From the pallet of colors to the intricate details I saw centuries old examples of design, detail & craftsmanship that made me pause.

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My first night in Cienfuegos we went to Palacio del Valle. I was immediately struck by the blending of architectural influences. Built a century ago by a sugar merchant, the mansion is now a National Monument of Cultural Heritage run by the government.

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This church window is more representative of maintenance & restoration of buildings in Cuba. Usually the dynamic image of stained glass windows is from an interior perspective. From the outside layers of history can be seen. Some ironwork is from colonial times while some is from current artisans.
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Public Art, especially murals, provide character to communities. They also offer backdrops for street photography. The hue & fading of her pants matching the backdrop is worth a 2nd look.
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This is not the iconic image from Abbey Road. A true Beatles fan would know they were walking the other direction & all 4 are in full stride. I didn’t catch that on-site because I was preoccupied with the numerous possibilities I could stage with this backdrop.

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I did not see many statues in my wanderings. This bronze likeness of Cuban Hero Jose Marti reading to a young boy represents many important values of Cuban society.
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I was initially attracted to Martha Jimenez’s paintings because of her subject matter of 3 women in diverse situations. I believe odd numbers work better in visuals arts. At her gallery/studio/classroom in Camaguey I discovered her talents included sculpting & engraving. Her primary subject is women. I noticed a few works with a sewing machine. The gallery director told me it represents women workers around the world.

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I was drawn to the work of Jose D. Gutierrez by the unique texture to his sculpture. Examining the pieces closely I recognized I had never seen whatever he used to make these detailed works of art. I inquired about how they were made. I was told about creating a mold, where the craftsmanship is needed, & then forming goat-skin over it.
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A few artists in Cuba are doing well financially selling to the rest of the world. But, like artists everywhere, Abel Garcia Leon must rely on other skills to live. His studio is in one room of his home & his barbershop is in an adjacent space. His great-great grandfather bought the barber chair in the 1880’s. He has sold his paintings in Europe, Canada & the US. His optimistic dream is to one day to have a showing in NYC.

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In many shops I found the typical colors & themes of paintings targeted at the tourist. While these pieces may not have any deep artistic qualities they are a few steps above the price & quality of mass-produced souvenir trinkets.
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Restrictions on expression after the ‘59 revolution & limited resources had a negative impact. However, art education & subsides increased the population of practicing artists. Some have demonstrated that art is freedom of the mind. Artist Georgeanys Trinidad
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Learning the perspectives of artistically expression opens your soul to emotions of others & yourself. Teaching & mentoring preserves the past but also sows seeds for the future.
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Let me reinforce the fact I have no credibility as an art critic. Part of my motivation for photography was to capture informal shots of people. Naturally portraits on canvas caught my eye. I observed that Cuban artists had a firm grasp on portraiture.
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The number of artists in Camagüey was more than other places I visited. One evening I met Eduardo Rosalez Ruiz in his studio/gallery where the walls were covered with diverse examples of his work. With a typical warm welcoming he told me about his current projects as we shared a drink of rum & honey. Working with materials & subjects of indigenous Taino Cubans he hopes to bring awareness to historical roots.

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“I love Digital. I Hate Digital” has become a mantra of mine. I immediately gave this oil on canvas that title.

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This piece by Lester Campa is my favorite not only because of style & subject but also because of the memory of Dr. Fidel Hernandez Figueroa proudly sharing it. If you go to this wonderful reservoir of talented artists plan on returning with some of their work.

The content of these postings are based upon my observations, conversations with my guide, interviews with people interpreted by my guide & interactions I had with people I met. Any mistakes are entirely mine with no intention to mislead.

Boxing

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There is still more to come from Cuba but I didn’t want to get into a rut. I don’t follow boxing. However the challenge of photographing the sport motivated me to give it a try. I had worked for a few years with HBO Championship Boxing doing slo-mo replays & I saw the speed & the action intimately. When I look at iconic boxing shots I realize just how difficult the sport is to cover with a still camera. I contacted Wolfpack Boxing Club & asked if I could bring my camera to try capture a few images. The owner Jeff said sure.

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The skills necessary for a boxer to step into a ring are as numerous as any sport. Split second hand-eye coordination, stamina, strength, agility, concentration & balance are all needed to attack you opponent while they attack you. Beyond the gloves & the roped off ring the sport has no other accessories. Their is no denying boxing is violent. However, it also involves strategy & judgment, which allude to the epithet of the “Sweet Science.”

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In addition to physical training a boxer must have psychological confidence & tenacity, which fuels powerful reactions. Capturing the brief expression with the action is a tremendous challenge for any photographer. But when you get it it’s compelling.

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At ringside you need different focal lengths to capture the action while shooting at a steep angle when boxers get close. Often action is blocked or so abrupt an angle that good images are almost impossible. For this shot at Wolfpack in Carnegie PA, I positioned myself with the background in mind. I then waited for the action to happen in front of it. Since this was training I was alongside the ropes & had flexibility where I could stand.

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Real-time self-observation is an excellent drill to develop techniques of punches & combinations. The opponent is yourself, which allows you to observe what an adversary sees. This perspective is a tremendous motivating drill. In a studio lighting situation I’d enjoy the chance to explore old school shadow boxing where I control the shadows.

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Frequently on HBO Boxing events I isolated a hand-held operator working from the corner of the ring. Gordie Sager was recognized as one of the best in this position. It was a pleasure to be responsible for replays of his work. He never gave up on framing for the best perspective. Slight adjustments he made in his position often resulted in surprising results because he knew where the action was going to go. Most memorably was his reaction when we didn’t get a single replay on the air. He said, “The other cameras had the best looks…tonight.” He understood the value of patience & persistence.

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Close-ups are more dramatic, but the story of most sports is told in wide shots showing relationship & interaction. Real fans of boxing know that a head to toe 2 shot is the bread & butter of the sport. I can’t say I am knowledgeable enough to analyze individual boxers.   However, I am aware enough to recognize & respect determination.

Cuba Environment

01Since my primary subject for photography was people, my visit to Las Terrazas & Soroa was more of a drive by-look-see. Traveling back roads reminded me of the valleys & hills of Western PA’s Allegheny Mountains. Since 1985 when UNESCO declared Sierra del Rosario a Biosphere Reserve, this region has become a model of sustainability as well as a laboratory/classroom for environmental education.

02 I had a life moment with Dr. Figueroa, Director of the Biosphere.  When we walked into his office it was obvious who in my group was not Cuban. He got up out of his chair, walked over extending his hand & said Fidel. I shook his had & since he informally only used his 1st name I did the same replying Jay with a smirky smile. His eyes widened as he chuckled saying…Really! We both laughed understanding in Spanish a close sound to J is Che. This 2 shot may never be as iconic as photos of our historic namesakes. But, it is locked to a memory from my trip that will always bring a smile to my face.

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Prior to the ’59 Revolution 11% of Cuba was covered in forest. European settlers cleared trees for cattle grazing & coffee plantations. The assault on the land was ferocious. Photo courtesy Sierra del Rosario Reserva de la Biosfera archive.

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Thanks to the work of peasants, who in the process of replanting the forest, also built what some call “Castro’s Eden.” Since the 70’s over 8 million trees have been planted increasing the forested Cuban land to 28%. This is an amazing success of Reforestation in just 4 decades considering the work was done with the most basic tools. In the middle of this is Las Terrazzos. A small community & very is different from the colonial founded cities where I spent the majority of my time. It is a “tab of butter in a sea of grits” as some of the Chapel Hill Boys would say. Eco-tourism directly accounts for over 250 jobs providing a much-improved standard of living.

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Dr. Fidel Hernandez Figueroa has worked here since 1983. As a young boy he wanted to live in the mountains. At the University he studied to be a Forest Engineer. He got his Masters as an Ecologist then a PhD in Forest Science. I think it is safe to say that he made his dream come true. After he laughed when I asked him what he enjoys doing when he isn’t working, he told me he always is working but still enjoys studying & tries to learn at least 1 new thing every night before he goes to bed.

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His accomplishments & attitude are fueled by passion & hope for the future. Fidel told me even if the pay is low he is spiritually wealthy. He insisted on showing me the portrait done by local artist Lester Campa. Since Fidel & I are close in age, the blending of two iconic personalities from our youth made it a serendipitous connection.

07aIn the forests around Las Terrazass the diversity of birds & plants, many of which are endemic, is an example of how repair can be made to nature. It also demonstrates how quality of life can be improved with a balanced approach to tourism & the environment. If I ever go back to Cuba this is a place I will get to know better. My translation of Sierra del Rosario is… Mountains of Hope.

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I’m vastly under-qualified to describe the tropical floral I saw Cuba other than to say it was diversely beautiful. For a much more detailed information please link to a blog by Emily Kalnicky Diretor of Science Education & Jordyn Melino Exhibit Coordinator from Phipps Conservatory.

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Sustainability & organic farming in Cuba evolved out of necessity. After the collapse of the USSR the supply of chemical pesticides & fertilizer disappeared. The rationing of food & other hardships impacted the entire population in what Cubans refer to as the “Special Period”. Weeding by hand was added to the list of manual chores needed to survive.

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The Vinales Valley on the western end of the mountain range is a UNESCO jewel, & a showcase of how 25 plus years of experience has made Cuba a model for Agricultural Sustainability. The mogotes, described as upside down bowls of ice cream, are unique topographical features that help define this place. They gave me a feeling of being small similar to how Yosemite made me feel. Some of the best tobacco in the world is grown in this fertile province. Even though most other parts of Cuba I drove thru were parched, this valley was lush. Hiking, horseback riding and biking are very common activities for visitors that allow you to get an intimate perspective of the natural environment.

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Nationally, clean energy production is on the rise but without the most technologically advanced tools. There are 300 cooperatives focusing on pig production. Some are also processing bio-mass fuel gas. Residual material from the fermenting of pig poop is used for fertilizing. Getting the most out of available resources is part of the Cuban Culture. This region provides an example of the benefits of sustainable environmental practices.

The content of these postings are based upon my observations, conversations with my guide, interviews with people interpreted by my guide & interactions I had with people I met. Any mistakes are entirely mine with no intention to mislead.